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"Bystanders, Rescuers or Perpetrators?"


"Bystanders, Rescuers or Perpetrators? The Neutral Countries and the Shoah" is the second volume in the IHRA publication series and offers a trans-national, comparative perspective on the varied reactions of the neutral countries to the Nazi persecution and murder of the European Jews.

It examines the often ambivalent policies of these states towards Jewish refugees as well as towards their own Jewish nationals living in German-occupied countries. By breaking down persistent myths, this volume contributes to a more nuanced understanding of an under-researched chapter of Holocaust history and also considers the challenges and opportunities related to Holocaust education and remembrance in the neutral countries.

The full publication is free and is available online here.

The volume is based on the conference papers of the international conference of the same name which was held in November 2014. The conference was originally funded through IHRA's Grant Programme and received the ‘Yehuda-Bauer Grant’ because of its particular emphasis on the multilateral aspect.

The volume is published by Metropol Verlag.

The first IHRA publication was entitled "Killing Sites- Research and Remembrance' and is available to download here.